Description of the Training

This topic provides 16 images of open defecation. ‘Open Defecation’ is not only defecating without a toilet. Open latrines that allow faeces to be transported by flies are also ‘open defecation’ (i.e. fixed point open defecation) because they do not block the faecal-oral transmission route. The cards are used to help prompt participants to discuss some of the harmful effects of open defecation.

How to use Rural Card set  9. ‘Open Defecation


  1. Give out all the cards in this set and in the ‘Improved Sanitation/Sanitation Technology’ set. Ask participants to sort them into three sets: Open defecation (OD), Zero Open Defecation (ZOD), and those which are half Open Defecation (OD).
  2. Discuss all ways of sealing faeces away from air, inclusion cat sanitation.



  1. Line up the cards from worst to best.
  2. Ask participants to stand behind the picture that represents their current practice.
  3. Count the number for each.
  4. Now ask everyone to stand behind the card they want to practice in the next week/month/six months.
1. Baby's faeces
5. Dirty pit latrine- contaminated with faeces
9. VIP latrine
13. Mother burying toddler's faeces (Cat sanitation)
2. Mother disposing of baby faeces outside
6. Drunk man vomiting/urinating all over latrine
10. Traditional pit latrine without cover
14. Adult cat sanitation
3. Toddler defecating beside house/ dog eating faeces
7. Shack latrine, open
11. Traditional VIP Latrine
15. Woman defecating into plastic bag (Flying toilet)
4. Adult defecating in gulley
8. Shack latrine, covered
12. Covered traditional latrine
16. Temporary pit, movable slab (Arbour Loo)

Facilitator instructions for Open Defecation (Rural) in English:

Rural Open Defecation Facilitator Instructions