Peer reviewed Papers on Community Health Clubs

by other authors

Heath, T, AH Thorseth, J Lamb, CV Mavodza, and S White. 2024. “Using Wash’Em to Design Handwashing Programmes for Crisis-Affected Populations in Zimbabwe: A Process Evaluation.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 21 (3).

Murakwani P, Sibanda.W, Dube,S, Weber,N. (2022) Community health clubs improve latrine construction through savings, lending, and income-generating activities.

Rosenfeld, J, Berggren, R & Frerichs L.  (2021) A Review of the Community Health Club Literature Describing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Outcomes.  IJERPH as part of the Special Issue Community-Based Approaches for Reducing Health Inequities .  Download full paper here: Rosenfeld et al 2021.

Chingono, Aggrippa. 2013. “An Investigation on the Impact of Community Health Club Approach on Community Health – Case of Ward 19 in Mberengwa District.” Post Graduate Diploma, Institute of Water and Sanitation Development, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Azurduy, L , M Stakem, and L Wright. 2007. “Assessment of the Community Health Club Approach: Koinadugu District, Sierra Leone” Africa AHEAD. Atlanta, GA,: CARE International.

Beesley, J. 2016. “‘When Others See What We Are Achieving, They Want to Join’: A Community Health Club Set up by SWIFT Inspires Improvements in Hygiene and Sanitation in Mwandiga I; SWIFT Consortium: London, UK. 2016.” Edited by E Feeny.;jsessionid=0E5C646E1A40DE8393825CFE03A38541?sequence=1.

Boone, P, D Elbourne , I Fazzio , S Fernandes , C Frost, C Jayanty, R King, et al. 2016. “Effects of Community Heath Interventions on under 5 Mortality in Rural Guinea Bissau (EPICS): A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial.” Lancet Glob Health 4: e328-35. doi:%2010.1016/%20s2214-109X(16)30048-1.

Brooks , J, A Adams, S Bendjemil, and J Rosenfeld. 2015. “Putting Heads and Hands Together to Change Knowledge and Behaviors: Community Health Clubs in Port-Au-Prince, Haiti. 34 (4).” Waterlines, 2015. doi:10.3362/1756-3488.2015.033.

Chingono, A. 2013. “An Investigation on the Impact of Community Health Club Approach on Community Health – Case of Ward 19 in Mberengwa District.” Post Graduate Diploma, Institute of Water and Sanitation Development, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Deffner, J, and T. Klugg. 2013. “Participatory Implementation of Sanitation Infrastructure in Urban Areas of North-Central Namibia.” WHOCC Newsletter 21.

Deffner, J, T Kluge, and K Müller. 2012. “Pressure of Urbanisation and a Sustainable Sanitation Infrastructure: Experiences with a Research Driven Planning Method in Northern Namibia,” 2012. Institute for Social-Ecological Research Mobility and Urban Spaces.

Ekane, N, S Dickin, S Gabrielsson, A Ntakarutimana, and N Rujengi. 2019. “Implementation Challenges for Community Health Clubs.” Stockholm Environment Institute. www,

Hirai, M, A Cole, M Munyaka, S Mudhuviwa, T Maja, and A Cronin. 2020. “Use of Group Maturity Index to Measure Growth, Performance, and Sustainability of Community Health Clubs in Urban Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Program in Zimbabwe.” Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, October.

Manyonganise, M. 2015. “Oppressive and Liberative: A Zimbabwean Woman’s Reflections on Ubuntu.” Verbum et Ecclesia 36 (2): 1438.

Ministry of Health Environmental Health Desk. 2010. “Roadmap for CBEHPP: Community Based Environmental   Health Promotion Programme. Rwanda.” 2010.

Murakwani PN, PN, W Sibanda W, SB Dube, and Weber N. 2022. “Community Health Clubs Improve Latrine Construction through Savings, Lending, and Income-Generating Activities.”  Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 12 (2).

Ncube, K. 2013. “An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Community Health Clubs as Drivers of Health and Hygiene in Mzilikazi District, Bulawayo” Thesis, Midlands State University, Department of Development Studies: Gweru, Zimbabwe.

Ndayambaje, RB. 2016. “Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Community Health Programs in Rwanda: A Case Study of Rusizi District.” University of Rwanda College of Business and Economics.

Niaone, M, S Bendjemil, J Rosenfeld, and R Berggren. 2016. “Community Health Clubs for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Improvement in Rural Burkina Faso.” Annals of Global Health 82 (3): 495–96.

Nkurunziza, M, A Ugabinema, U Muhimpundu, and R Dlamini. 2013. “Increasing Access to Sanitation and Hygiene through Community Hygiene Clubs in Rwanda.” In 36th WEDC Conference.Refereed Paper 1762. UK: WEDC, Loughborough University.

Ntakarutimana, A. 2015. “A Case for Integrated Population, Health and Environment (PHE).” In Poster East African Health Research Council. Burundi: Case study from Rwanda and DRC School of Health Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda.

Ntakarutimana, A, JN. Kagwiza, E Bushaija, DK. Tumusiime, and KA. Schuller. 2021a. “Insights from the Implementation and Adoption of Community-Based Health Interventions.” Journal of Social, Behavioral & Health Sciences 15 (1): 61–75.

———. 2021b. “Reduction of Hygiene-Related Disease and Malnutrition in Rwanda.” Journal of Social, Behavioral & Health Sciences 15 (1): 76–86.

Ntakarutimana, A, E Nyandwi, N Rujeni, C Marie Ingabire, KJ Njunwa, T Ntakirutimana, G Rwanyiziri, J Tuyishimire, and S Ngabonziza. 2022. “Evaluation of the Control of Water Sanitation and Hygiene Related Disease through Community Hygiene Club Intervention in Rwanda.” Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences 16 (1).

Ntakirutimana, T, H Gasana, and K Rubuga. 2016. “Assessment of Community Based Environmental Health Promotion Program (CBEHPP) Achievements and Its Sustainability in Bugesera District.” Africa AHEAD. Kigali, Rwanda: WaterAid.

Pantoglou, J. 2018. “Evaluating Hygiene Behaviour Change within Community Health Clubs in the Rusizi District of Rwanda.” Master’s Thesis, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin: Berlin, Germany.

Rosenfeld, J, R Berggren, and L Frerichs. 2021. “A Review of the Community Health Club Literature Describing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Outcomes.” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18: 1880.

Rosenfeld, J. 2019. “Social Capital and Community Health Clubs in Haiti.” University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill.

Rosenfeld, J. n.d. “Building Common-Unity One Club at a Time | Jason Rosenfeld | TEDxSanAntonio.” Accessed October 26, 2023.

Rosenfeld, J, R Berggren, and F Paulino. 2013. “Measuring Behavioral Changes Associated with Community Health Clubs in the Dominican Republic.”

Sidibe, M, and V Curtis. 2002. “Hygiene Promotion in Burkina Faso and Zimbabwe: New Approaches to Behaviour Change.” Edited by J Lane. Blue Gold Series World Bank-WSP/AF, no. 7.

Tobergte, L, B Evans, and A Muringaniza. 2017. “Long-Term Sustainability of Behavior Change due to Community Health Clubs.” Unpublished.

Whaley, L, and J Webster. 2011. “The Effectiveness and Sustainability of Two Demand Driven Sanitation and Hygiene Approaches in Zimbabwe.” Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 1 (1): 20–36.

Peer reviewed papers by Waterkeyn et al 1993-2023

Waterkeyn, A.1993. “Pipe Dream or Pump Dream?” Waterlines 11 (4).

Waterkeyn A, 2005. “Self-Supply through Small Community and Household Water Supplies.” Waterlines 25 (1).

Waterkeyn, J. 1988. The Afridev Handpump. Nairobi: UNDP/World Bank (Rural Water Supply Handpumps Project) with PATH, KIE and Kenya Water for Health Organisation.

Waterkeyn J. 1991a. “Community Mobilisation-Where Is the Entry Point?” Waterlines 9 (4).

Waterkeyn J. 1991.b. “The Development of Training Materials for Water and Sanitation Projects 1986-1991.” Nairobi: Kenya Water for Health Organisation .

Waterkeyn J. 2000. “Zimbabwe AHEAD Annual Report.” Zimbabwe AHEAD.

Waterkeyn J. 2001. “Quantifying the Cost-Effectiveness of the Community  Health Club Strategy in the Rural Areas of Zimbabwe.” In Student Research Convening. London: Royal Society of Tropical Medicine .

Waterkeyn J. 2003. “Cost-Effectiveness Health Promotion: Community Health Clubs. .” In 29th  International Conference “towards the Millennium Development Goals”,. WEDC.

Waterkeyn J. 2005. “Decreasing Communicable Diseases through Improved Hygiene in Community Health Clubs.” In 31st WEDC International Conference “Maximizing the Benefits from Water and Environmental Sanitation.” WEDC.

Waterkeyn J. 2006. “Cost-Effective Health Promotion and Hygiene Behaviour Change through Community Health Clubs in Zimbabwe. .” PhD Thesis, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Health. doi:

Waterkeyn, J. 2007. “The Consensus Approach: Health Promotion through Community Health Clubs. 2007. Briefing Note.38. .” Edited by J. Fisher.

Waterkeyn. J. 2010. Hygiene Behaviour Change through the Community Health Club Approach : A Cost Effective Strategy to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals for Improved Sanitation in Africa. Saarbrücken, Germany.: Lap Lambert Academic Pub.

Waterkeyn,J. 2011. “27.     WHO Guidance on Communications with Respect to Safe Drinking Water and Household Hygiene.” Edited by Cranfield and John Hopkins. World Health Organisation.

Waterkeyn, J. 2021. “A Methodological Crisis in the WASH Sector: Crunching Numbers and Throwing Them over the Wall.” Public Health Open Access 5 (1).

Waterkeyn, J. 2023. “Recreating Social Capital through Nurturing Ubuntu in Community Health Clubs for Disease Prevention.” Medical Research Archives 11 (11).

Waterkeyn, J, and S Cairncross. 2005. “Creating Demand for Sanitation and Hygiene through Community Health Clubs: A Cost-Effective Intervention in Two Districts in Zimbabwe.” Social Science & Medicine 61 (9): 1958–70.

Waterkeyn, J, R Matimati, A Muringaniza, A Chingono, A Ntakarutimana, J Katabarwa, Z Bigirimana, J Pantoglou, A Waterkeyn, and S Cairncross. 2019. “Comparative Assessment of Hygiene Behaviour Change and Cost-Effectiveness of Community Health Clubs in Rwanda and Zimbabwe.” In Healthcare Access – Regional Overviews., edited by Umar Bacha, Urska Rozman, and Sonja Sostar Turk. United Kingdom: IntechOpen.

Waterkeyn, J, V K Nyamandi, and NH Nga. 2022. “A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Community Health Clubs in Rural Areas of Vietnam and Zimbabwe to Control Diarrhoeal Disease.” In Rural Health, edited by Umar Bacha. United Kingdom: IntechOpen.

Waterkeyn, J, P Okot, and V Kwame. 2005. “Rapid Sanitation Uptake in the Internally Displaced People Camps of Northern Uganda through Community Health Clubs.” In 31st  Water Engineering & Development Centre Conference. UK: Loughborough University.

Waterkeyn, J, and A Waterkeyn. 2004. “Taking PHAST the Extra Mile through Community Health Clubs. Water Sanitation Programme – East Africa. World Bank.” Kenya: WSP-East Africa,World Bank.

Waterkeyn,J. 2005. “Taking PHAST the Extra Mile: Structured Participation in Community Health Clubs. The A.H.E.A.D Methodology.  February 2005 J. Waterkeyn & A. Waterkeyn.” In RGWS World Bank – WSP. Nairobi.

Waterkeyn J. 2013. “Creating a Culture of Health: Hygiene Behaviour Change in Community Health Clubs through Knowledge and Positive Peer Pressure.” Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 3 (2): 144–55.

Waterkeyn, J, A Waterkeyn, F Uwingabire, J Pantoglou, A Ntakarutimana, M Mbirira, J Katabarwa, Z Bigirimana, S Cairncross, and R Carter. 2020. “The Value of Monitoring Data in a Process Evaluation of Hygiene Behaviour Change in Community Health Clubs to Explain Findings from a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial in Rwanda.” BMC Public Health 20 (1).