Description of the Training

This topic provides 15 images of recommended good sanitation concerning Zero Open Defecation (ZOD). The cards are used to help prompt participants to discuss some of the ways that people can block bad sanitation practices, with the objective of having zero open defecation around their homes.

How to use Card set  14.a. ‘Sanitation: ZOD’ 

1. Facilitator gives out the set of pictures to the participants. 

2. Those with pictures come to the front and each one describes what is in the picture. 

3. Each time a participant explains their picture they must say whether there is open defecation (faeces exposed to the air) 

4. Make two groups: those with open defecation pictures and those with no open Defecation 

5. Ask the groups if these practices are common in the area. Remove those that are not common. 

6. Now ask the participants in the ‘Open Defecation Group’ to find a partner whose picture shows a way to make faeces safe. 

7. Each pair must then present their pictures together explaining how one picture provides the solution to open defecation.

Facilitator Instructions for Sanitation: ZOD

Click here for Facilitator Instructions (English)


  1. Open defecation
  2. Cat sanitation
  3. Open pit, wooden slab
  4. Open pit, wooden slab, grass
  5. Temporary latrine with cloth
  6. Temporary latrine with lined pit/slab
  7. Brick latrine with lined pit
  8. Cement walls and thatch
  9. Cement walls and tin roof
  10. Cement walls and slab
  11. Covered latrine
  12. Double composting
  13. Ecosan latrine/ urine separation
  14. VIP latrine