Publications by Prof Sandy Cairncross (OBE)

Publications by Prof Sandy Cairncross (OBE)

1973-2012

(Book reviews and unpublished reports are not included; books and manuals are marked *)

  1. CAIRNCROSS, A.M. 1973. Deformations around model tunnels in stiff clay. PhD thesis, University of Cambridge.
  1. Atkinson, J.H. and CAIRNCROSS, A.M.  1973.  Collapse of a shallow tunnel in a Mohr‑Coulomb material.  Proceedings of the Roscoe Memorial Symposium on Plasticity in Soil Mechanics, Cambridge.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, A.M., Atkinson, J.H. and James, R.G.  1974.  Model tests on shallow tunnels in sand and clay.  Tunnels and Tunnelling, July 1974.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, A.M. and James, R.G.  1977.  Anisotropy in over‑consolidated clays. Géotechnique, 27 (l): 31‑36.

*5.  CAIRNCROSS, A.M.  1975.  Roadworks Manual for Tropical and Subtropical Countries. London: Commonwealth Association of Architects.

  1. CAIRNCROSS, A.M.  1976.  The Soils of Lesotho.  Maseru, Lesotho: Ministry of Education.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S.  and Feachem, R.G.  1977. Operation and maintenance of rural water supplies.  EEC‑ACP Courier, 43: 57‑59
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S.  1978.  Village water supplies.  Overseas Building Note No. 178.  Garston, England: Building Research Centre.

*9.  Feachem, R.G. and CAIRNCROSS, S.  1978.  Small Excreta Disposal Systems.  London: Ross Institute of Tropical Hygiene.

*10. CAIRNCROSS, S.  and Feachem, R.G. 1978.  Small Water Supplies. London: Ross Institute of Tropical Hygiene.

*11. Feachem, R.G., CAIRNCROSS, S., et al.  1978.  Water, Health and Development: An Interdisciplinary Evaluation.  London: Tri‑Med Books.

*12. CAIRNCROSS, S., Carruthers, I., Curtis, D., Feachem, R.G., Bradley, D. and Baldwin, J.  1980.  Evaluation for Village Water Supply Planning.  Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1980.  Lagoas de Estabilisação.  Construir, Maputo, 3: 48‑51.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1981.  Standards and technologies for rural water supply.  Proceedings of UNCHS (Habitat) Ad Hoc Expert Group Meeting on Infrastructure.  Nairobi: UNCHS (Habitat).

*15. CAIRNCROSS, S. and Feachem, R.G.  1983.  Environmental Health Engineering in the Tropics: an Introductory Text.  Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1983.  Draft training modules on evaluation of water supply and sanitation.  The Hague: UNICEF/Royal Tropical Institute/WHO‑IRC.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. and Cliff, J. 1983.  Water and Health in Mueda, Mozambique.  International Workshop on Measuring the Health Impact of Water Supply and Sanitation Projects. Dhaka, Bangladesh: ICDDR,B.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1984.  Aspectos de Saúde nos sistemas de saneamento básico.  Engenharia Sanitária, Rio de Janeiro, 23, 4, 334‑338.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. and Appleton, B. 1985.  Evaluation of Water and Sanitation Projects: Your Questions Answered. International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade Publication No. 6.  Geneva: World Health Organization.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1986.  Rural water supply in Mozambique.  In: Developing World Water, J. Pickford, ed.  London: Grosvenor Press.  pp. 287‑288.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1986. Urban drainage in developing countries. Parasitology Today, 2: 7, 200‑202.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1986.  Abastecimento de água aos pequenos aglomerados.  In: Proceedings of Encontro Nacional de Saneamento Básico 1986.  Lisbon: Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. and Cliff, J.L. 1987.  Water use and health in Mueda, Mozambique.  Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81: 51‑54.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1987.  Low‑cost sanitation technology for the control of intestinal helminths.  Parasitology Today, 3 (3): 94‑98.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1987.  The benefits of water supply.  In: Developing World Water II, J. Pickford, ed. London: Grosvenor Press pp 30‑34.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1987.  Letter: Ingested dose and diarrhoea transmission routes.  American Journal of Epidemiology 125 (5): 921‑922.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1987.  The private sector and water supply in developing countries: partnership or profiteering?  Health Policy and Planning 2 (2): 180‑182.
  1. [CAIRNCROSS, S. 1987. The International Water Decade. Editorial, Lancet (ii), October 17]
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1988.  Sanitation.  In: In the Shadow of the City: Community Health and the Urban Poor. T. Harpham, et al. ed. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1988.  Domestic water supply in rural Africa. In: Rural Transformation in Tropical Africa, D. Rimmer, ed. London: Belhaven Press.
  1. Blumenthal, U.J., Strauss, M., Mara, D.D. and CAIRNCROSS, S. 1988. Generalised model of the effect of different control measures in reducing health risks from waste reuse. Water Science and Technology, 21: 567‑577.

(This paper won the annual medal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control.)

  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. and Tayeh, A.T. 1988. Guinea worm and water supply in Kordofan, Sudan. Journal of the Institution of Water and Environmental Management, 2 (3): 268‑274.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S., Rajavel, A.R., Vanamail, P., Subramaniam, S., Paily K.P., Ramaiah, K.D., Amalraj, D., Mariappan, T. and Srinivasan, R. 1988. Engineering, mosquitoes and filariasis: a case report. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91: 101‑106.

*34. CAIRNCROSS, S.  1988. Small Scale Sanitation London: Ross Institute of Tropical Hygiene.

  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1988. Health Aspects of water and sanitation. Waterlines   (1), 2‑5.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. and Kinnear, J. 1988. Measurement of the elasticity of domestic water demand: a study of water vendors and their clients, in urban Sudan. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1989 Water supply and sanitation: an agenda for research. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92: 301‑314.

*38. Mara, D.D. and CAIRNCROSS, S. 1989.  Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater and Excreta in Agriculture and Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation.  (Also published in French and Spanish)

  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. and Tayeh, A.T. 1989. Aggregation of Dracunculus medinensis in communities using different types of water source in Sudan. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83 (3): 431 (Abstract).
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1990 Water! World Health,  Jan‑Feb, 21‑23.
  1. [CAIRNCROSS, S. 1990. Use of sewage and sludge in agriculture. Editorial, Lancet (i) 635‑636.]
  1. Mertens, T.E., Fernando, M.A., CAIRNCROSS S. et al. 1990. Determinants of water contamination, availability and use in Kurunegala, Sri Lanka, Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 41: 89-97.

*43. CAIRNCROSS, S., Hardoy, J.E. and Satterthwaite D., eds. 1990 The Poor Die Young: Housing and Health in Third World Cities. London: Earthscan Publications.

  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1990 Health impacts in developing countries: new evidence and new prospects. Journal of the Institution of Water and Environmental Management 4, (6), 571‑577.
  1. Aziz, K.M.A., Hoque, B.A., CAIRNCROSS, S. et al. 1990 Water supply, sanitation and hygiene education: report of a health impact study in Mirzapur, Bangladesh. Water and Sanitation report Series No.1. Washington DC: The World Bank.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1990 Sanitation and the control of hookworm disease. In Schad, G.A. and Warren K.S. (eds) Hookworm Disease: Current Status and New Directions. London: Taylor and Francis, 304-317.

*47. CAIRNCROSS, S and Ouano EAR 1991. Surface Water Drainage for Low Income Communities.  Geneva: World Health Organisation.  (Also published in Spanish and French)

  1. Killewo, J.Z.J., CAIRNCROSS, S., Smet, J.E.M. et al. 1991. Patterns of hookworm and ascaris infection in Dar es Salaam. Acta Tropica 48, 247-249.
  1. Tayeh A., CAIRNCROSS, S. 1991. The impact of water projects on the spread of dracunculiasis in part of Sudan and Ghana.  In: Wooldridge R. (ed) Techniques for Environmentally Sound Water Resources Development.  London: Pentech Press.  pp 279-289.
  1. Bradley, D. CAIRNCROSS, S., Harpham, T., and Stephens, C., 1991. A Review of Environmental Health Impacts in Developing Country Cities. Urban Management Program Discussion Paper No. 6. Washington DC: The World Bank.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1991. In the time of cholera. Editorial, Abstracts on Hygiene and Communicable Diseases 66, 4, 85-86.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. and Kinnear, J. 1991. Water vending in urban Sudan. Journal of Water Resources Development 7,4, 267-273.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. and Kinnear, J. 1992. Elasticity of demand for water in Khartoum, Sudan. Social Science and Medicine 34,2, 183-189.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. ed 1992. Guinea Worm Eradication: a Selected Bibliography. London: Bureau of Hygiene and Tropical Diseases
  1. [CAIRNCROSS, S. 1992. Of cabbages and chlorine: cholera in Peru. Editorial, Lancet 340 (ii), 20-21]
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1992. The control of enteric pathogens in developing countries.  In Mitchell R. ed. Environmental Microbiology.  New York: John Wiley and Sons pp 157 – 190.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1992. Sanitation and Water Supply: Practical Lessons from the Decade.  Water and Sanitation Discussion Paper No. 9. Washington DC: The World Bank
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1992. Guinea worm; good news from Ghana. Editorial, Lancet 340 (ii), 1322-1323]

*59. Boot, M. and CAIRNCROSS, S. 1993.  Actions Speak: the Study of Hygiene Behaviour in Water and Sanitation Projects. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

*60. CAIRNCROSS, S. and Feachem, R.G. 1993.  Environmental Health Engineering in the Tropics; an Introductory Text. (2nd ed.) Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

  1. Tayeh, A.T. and CAIRNCROSS, S. 1993. Dracunculiasis eradication by 1995. Will endemic countries meet the target? Health Policy and Planning 8, 3, 191-207.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1993. Guinea worm eradication; is the target attainable? In: Pickford J. ed. Proceedings of the 19th WEDC Conference, Accra. Loughborough, UK: Loughborough University.
  1. Tayeh, A., CAIRNCROSS, S. and Maude, G.H. 1993. Water sources and other determinants of dracunculiasis in the Northern Region of Ghana. Journal of Helminthology, 67, 213-225.
  1. [CAIRNCROSS, S. 1993. After smallpox: slaying the dragon worm.] In World Development Report 1993, p. 92. Oxford University Press for The World Bank.

*65. CAIRNCROSS, S. and Kochar, V.J. eds. 1994. Studying Hygiene Behaviour; Methods, Issues and Experiences. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

  1. Hours, M. and CAIRNCROSS, S. 1994. Long-term disability due to Guinea worm. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, 88, 559-560.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S 1995. Victory over Guinea worm; partial or pyrrhic? Lancet 346, (8988) 1440.
  1. Tayeh, A. and CAIRNCROSS, S. 1995. The reliability of retrospective studies using a one-year recall period to measure dracunculiasis prevalence in Ghana. International Journal of Epidemiology 24, (6), 1233-1239.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S., Blumenthal U., Kolsky P., Moraes L. and Tayeh A. 1996. The public and domestic domains in the transmission of disease. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1, (1), 27‑34.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S., Braide, E. and Bugri, S. 1996. Community participation in the eradication of Guinea worm disease. Acta Tropica 61, 121-136
  1. Tayeh, A., CAIRNCROSS, S. and Maude, G.H. 1996. The impact of health education to promote cloth filters on dracunculiasis prevalence in the Northern Region, Ghana. Social Science & Medicine 43, (8), 1205-1211.
  1. Tayeh, A., CAIRNCROSS, S. 1996. The impact of dracunculiasis on the nutritional status of children in South Kordofan, Sudan. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 16, 221-226.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1996. Water quality, quantity and health. In Drangert J-O, Swiderski R and Woodhouse M (eds). Conference on Safe Water Environments, Eldoret, Kenya. Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University, 60-65.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S., Cutts F.T. and Periès H. 1997. Vertical programmes; what are they good for? Lancet 349, SII 20-22.
  1. CAIRNCROSS, S. 1997. Quantity or quality? Water supplies and health. People and the Planet 6, 3, 10-11.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S. and Kolsky, P.J. 1997. Letter: water, waste and well-being. American Journal of Epidemiology 146, 4, 359-360.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S., Cutts F.T. and Periès H. 1997. Vertical programmes; what are they good for? Authors’ reply. Lancet 350, 812-813.
  1. Periès H. and CAIRNCROSS S. 1997. Global eradication of Guinea worm. Parasitology Today 13 (11) 431-437.
  1. Tayeh A.T., Jalouk L. and CAIRNCROSS S. 1997. Twenty years of leishmaniasis in Aleppo, Syria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91, 657-659.
  1. Afouda A., Bhatia R., CAIRNCROSS S. et al. (Scientific Committee on Water Research, International Council of Scientific Unions) 1998. Water resources research: trends and needs in 1997. Journal of Hydrological Sciences 43 (1) 19-46.
  1. Tayeh A.T. and CAIRNCROSS S. 1998. The effect of size of surface drinking water sources on dracunculiasis prevalence in the Northern Region of Ghana. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 8: 285-292.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S. 1998. Guinea worm eradication. In: Stacey G ed. Health in the Commonwealth: Challenges and Solutions. London: Kensington Publications for the Commonwealth Secretariat. pp 162-162.
  1. Hunt C., CAIRNCROSS S., Dubey M. et al. 1998. The use of community-based environmental health indicators in the provision of urban services. Abstract book: 1st World Congress of Health and Urban Environment, Madrid, July 6-10.
  1. Hunt C., CAIRNCROSS S., Dubey M. et al. 1998. Community-based environmental health indicators. In: Proceedings of the 24th WEDC Conference, Islamabad. Loughborough, UK: Loughborough University.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S., Anemana S.D. and Olsen A. 1999. Towards the eradication of Guinea worm; a Danish-Ghanaian collaboration. Parasitology Today 15 (4) 127-129.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S. 1999. Water and trachoma. Journal of Community Eye Health 12 (32) 58-59.
  1. Kolsky P.J., Butler D., CAIRNCROSS S., Blumenthal U.J., Hosseini M. 1999. Modelling drainage performance in slums of developing ountries; how good is good enough? Water Science & Technology 39 (9) 285-292.
  1. Hunt C., CAIRNCROSS S., Dubey M., et al. 1999. Community-based environmental health indicators; a useful tool in facilitating dialogue between communities and planners. Urban Health & Development Bulletin 2 (2): 82-90.

88. Curtis V., CAIRNCROSS S., Yonli R. 2000. Domestic hygiene and diarrhoea; pinpointing the problem. Tropical Medicine & International Health 5 (1) 22-32.

  1. CAIRNCROSS S., Gibert M., Lloyd B. 2000. Water Quality Standards. Sustainable Development International 2-4 1-5.
  1. Emerson P.M., CAIRNCROSS S., Bailey R.L., Mabey D.C.W. 2000. A review of the evidence for the “F” and “E” components of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control. Tropical Medicine & International Health 5 (8): 515-527.

*91. Hunt C., CAIRNCROSS S. et al. 2000 Global Water Supply & Sanitation Assessment, Year 2000 Report. Geneva: World Health Organization, Unicef and Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council.

  1. CAIRNCROSS S. 2000 Ambiente e saúde; concordância ou conflito? Cadernos Saúde Coletiva, Rio de Janeiro 8 (1): 89-92.
  1. Bradley D.J., CAIRNCROSS S., Haines A., Stephens C. 2001 Health and sustainable development. World Summit for Sustainable Development Opinion. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.
  1. Jensen P.K., Matsuno Y., van der Hoek W., CAIRNCROSS S. 2001 Limitations of irrigation water quality guidelines from a multiple use perspective. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 15 (2): 117-128.
  1. Almeida L.M., Werneck G.L., CAIRNCROSS S., Coeli C.M., Costa M.C.E., Coletty P.E. 2001. The epidemiology of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro: environmental and domestic risk factors. Epidemiology and Infection 127: 327-333
  1. Thompson J., CAIRNCROSS S. 2002 Drawers of water; assessing domestic water use in East Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 80: 61-62.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S., Muller R., Zagaria N. 2002 Dracunculiais (Guinea worm disease) and the eradication initiative. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 15: 223-246
  1. Jensen P.K., Ensink J.H.J., Jayasinghe G., van der Hoek W., CAIRNCROSS S., Dalsgaard A. 2002 Domestic transmission routes of pathogens; the problem of in-house contamination of drinking water during storage in developing countries. Tropical Medicine & International Health 7: 604-609
  1. Teixeira M.G., Barreto M.L., Costa M.C., Ferreira L.D.A., Vasconcelos P.F.C., CAIRNCROSS S. 2002 Dynamics of dengue virus circulation; a silent epidemic in a complex urban area. Tropical Medicine & International Health 7 (8): 757-762.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S. 2003. Editorial: water supply and sanitation; some misconceptions. Tropical Medicine & International Health 8 (3): 193-195.
  1. Almeida L.M., Amaku M., Azevedo R.S., CAIRNCROSS S., Massad E. 2003 The intensity of transmission of hepatitis A and heterogeneities in socio-environmental risk factors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 96: 605-610.
  1. Jensen PK, Ensink JHJ, Jayasinghe G, van der Hoek W, CAIRNCROSS S, Dalsgaard A. 2003. Effect of chlorination of drinking-water on water quality and childhood diarrhoea in a village in Pakistan. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 21: 26-31.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S. 2003. Sanitation in the developing world; current status and future solutions. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 13: S123-S131.
  1. Curtis V, CAIRNCROSS S. 2003. Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review. Lancet Infectious Diseases 3: 275-281.
  1. Strina A, CAIRNCROSS S, Barreto ML, Larrea C and Prado MS 2003. Childhood diarrhea and observed hygiene behavior in Salvador, Brazil. American Journal of Epidemiology 157 (11): 1032-1038.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S, O’Neill D, McCoy A, Sethi D 2003. Health, Environment and the Burden of Disease; a Guidance Note. London: Department for International Development. (Also published in French)
  1. Curtis V, CAIRNCROSS S, 2003. Water, sanitation and hygiene at Kyoto; hand washing and sanitation need to be marketed as if they were consumer products. British Medical Journal 327: 3-4.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S, 2003. Editorial: Handwashing with soap – a new way to prevent ARIs? Tropical Medicine & International Health 8 (8): 677-679
  1. Moraes L.R.S., Cancio J.A., CAIRNCROSS S., Huttly S.R.A. 2003. Impact of drainage and sewerage on diarrhoea in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97: 153-158.
  1. Prado MS, Strina A, Barreto ML, Oliveira-Assis AM,  Paz LM, CAIRNCROSS S 2003. Risk factors for infection with Giardia duodenalis in pre-school children in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Epidemiology and Infection 131: 899-906.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S, Shordt K 2004. It does last! Some findings from a multi-country study of hygiene sustainability. Waterlines 22 (3): 4-7.
  1. Clasen TF, CAIRNCROSS S. 2004. Editorial: Household water management; refining the dominant paradigm. Tropical Medicine and International Health 9 (2): 187-191.
  1. Moraes LRS, Cancio JA, CAIRNCROSS S. 2004. Impact of drainage and sewerageon intestinal nematode infections in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 98: 197-204.
  1. Moraes LRS, CAIRNCROSS S. 2004. Environmental Interventions and the Pattern of Geohelminth Infections in Salvador, Brazil. Parasitology 129: 223-232.
  1. Clasen T, Brown J, Collin S, Suntura O, CAIRNCROSS S. 2004. Reducing diarrhoea through the use of household-based ceramic water filters: a randomized, controlled trial in rural Bolivia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 70 (6): 651-7.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S, Muller R. 2004. Dracunculiasis. In Kamel R. & Lumley J. (eds) Textbook of Tropical Surgery. London: Westminster Publishing, 1053-1055.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S. 2004. The Case for Marketing Sanitation. Water & Sanitation Program Field Note. Nairobi: The World Bank.
  1. Aiga H, Amano T, CAIRNCROSS S, Domako JA, Nanas OK, Coleman S. 2004. Assessing water-related risk factors for Buruli ulcer: a case-control study in Ghana. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 71 (4): 387-92.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S, Valdmanis V. 2004. Water supply, sanitation and hygiene promotion. Disease Control Priorities Project, Working Paper no. 28. Washington DC: National Institutes of Health. www.fic.nih.gov/dcpp/wps.html
  1. Jensen PK, Jayasinghe G, van der Hoek W, CAIRNCROSS S, Dalsgaard A. 2004. Is there an association between bacteriological drinking water quality and childhood diarrhoea in developing countries? Tropical Medicine & International Health 9 (11): 1210-1215.
  1. Bolt E, CAIRNCROSS S. 2004. Sustainability of Hygiene Behaviour and the Effectiveness of Change Interventions. 1 – Lessons learned on research methodologies and research implementation from a multi-country research study. Delft, Netherlands: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre

*122.   Shordt K, CAIRNCROSS S. 2004.  Sustainability of Hygiene Behaviour and the Effectiveness of Change Interventions. 2 – Findings of a multi-country research study and implications for water and sanitation programmes. Delft, Netherlands: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

  1. Clasen T, Roberts I, Rabie T, CAIRNCROSS S (2004). Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea (Protocol for a Cochrane Review).  In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2004. Oxford: Update Software
  1. Ezzati M, Utzinger J, CAIRNCROSS S, Cohen AJ, Singer BH. 2005. Environmental risks in the developing world: exposure indicators for evaluating programs, interventions and policies. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 59 (1): 15-22.
  1. Strina A, CAIRNCROSS S, Prado MS, Teles CAS, Barreto ML. 2005. Childhood diarrhoea symptoms, management and duration: observations from a community longitudinal study. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 99 (6): 407-416.
  1. Prado MS, CAIRNCROSS S, Strina A, Barreto ML, Oliveira-Assis AM, Rego S. 2005. Asymptomatic giardiasis and growth in young children; a longitudinal study in Salvador, Brazil. Parasitology 131 (Pt 1): 51-6.
  1. Oum S, Chandramohan D, CAIRNCROSS S. 2005. Community-based surveillance; a pilot study from rural Cambodia. Tropical Medicine & International Health 10 (7): 689-97.
  1. Waterkeyn J, CAIRNCROSS S 2005. Creating demand for sanitation and hygiene through Community Health Clubs: a cost-effective intervention in two districts in Zimbabwe. Social Science & Medicine 61(9):1958-70.
  1. Morgan O, Ahern M, CAIRNCROSS S. 2005. Revisiting the tsunami: health consequences of flooding. Public Library of Science Medicine 2(6):e184. Epub 2005 Jun 28.
  1. [CAIRNCROSS S. 2005 Evaluation of the dracunculiasis surveillance system in 4 districts in Ghana. Weekly Epidemiological Record 80(32): 270-276.]
  1. CAIRNCROSS S, Shordt K, Zacharia S, Govindan BK. 2005. What causes sustainable changes in hygiene behaviour? A cross-sectional study from Kerala, India. Social Science & Medicine 61(10): 2212-20.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S, Valdmanis V. 2006. Water supply, sanitation and hygiene promotion. In: Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR et al. (eds.) Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries (2nd edition). Washington DC: The World Bank, Chapter 41, pp. 771-792.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S, Alvarinho MJC. 2006 The Mozambique floods of 2000; health impact and response. In Few R and Matthies F (eds.) Flood Hazards and Health. London: Earthscan, Chapter 5, pp. 111-127.
  1. Clasen T, Roberts I, Rabie T, Schmidt W, CAIRNCROSS S. 2006. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;3:CD004794.
  1. Fung IC, CAIRNCROSS S 2006. Effectiveness of handwashing in preventing SARS; a review. Tropical Medicine & International Health 11 (11): 1749-1758
  1. Ensink JHJ, Brooker S, CAIRNCROSS S and Scott CA 2006. Wastewater use in India, the impact of irrigation weirs on water quality and farmer health. Proc. 32nd WEDC International Conference, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

137     Clasen T, Schmidt W-P, CAIRNCROSS S (2007). Letter: Evidence from intervention studies questions need for integrated diarrhoea control strategies.  American Journal of Public Health http://www.ajph.org/cgi/eletters/AJPH.2006.086207v1

  1. Clasen T, Schmidt W-P, Rabie T, Roberts I, CAIRNCROSS S 2007. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Medical Journal 334(7597):782 (Evid. Based Med. 2007;12;127-128)
  1. Clasen T, Haller L, Walker D, Bartram J, CAIRNCROSS S 2007 Cost-effectiveness of water quality interventions for preventing diarrhoeal disease in developing countries. Journal of Water and Health  5(4):599-608.
  1. Fung IC, CAIRNCROSS S 2007 How often do you wash your hands? A review of surveys of hand-washing practices in the community during and after the SARS outbreak in 2003. International Journal of Environmental Health Research 17 (3): 161-183.
  1. Clasen T, Roberts I, Rabie T, Schmidt W-P, CAIRNCROSS S 2007. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. Evidence Based Child Health 2(1):226-329
  1. Wilbanks T, Romero-Lankao P, CAIRNCROSS S et al. 2007. Industry, Settlement, and Society. Chapter 7 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. IPCC 4th Assessment Report, volume II. Exeter,  UK: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  1. Barreto ML, Genser B, Strina A, Teixeira MG, Assis AMO, Rego RF, Teles CA,. Prado MS, Matos SMA, dos Santos LA, CAIRNCROSS S. 2007. Effect of city-wide sanitation programme on reduction in rate of childhood diarrhoea in northeast Brazil: assessment by two cohort studies. The Lancet 370:1622-1628. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61638-9
  1. Ensink JHJ, Hoek W vd, Mara DD, CAIRNCROSS S. 2007. Waste stabilization pond performance in Pakistan and its implications for wastewater use in agriculture. Urban Water Journal 4 (4): 261 – 267. DOI: 10.1080/15730620701427429
  1. Tayeh AT, CAIRNCROSS S. 2007. Dracunculiasis eradication by 2009: Will endemic countries meet the target? Tropical Medicine & International Health 12(12):1403-8.
  1. Chandramohan D, Shibuya K, Setel P, CAIRNCROSS S, Lopez AD, Murray CJL. 2008. Should data from demographic surveillance systems be made more widely available to researchers? PLoS Medicine 5 (2): e57 DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050057
  1. Clasen TF, Bostoen K, Schmidt WP, Boisson S, Fung ICH, Jenkins M, Scott B, Sugden S, CAIRNCROSS S 2008. Interventions to improve excreta disposal for the prevention of diarrhoea. (Protocol for a Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2008. Oxford: Update Software
  1. Ferrer SR, Strina A, Jesus SR, Ribeiro-Jr HC, CAIRNCROSS S, Rodrigues LC, Barreto ML 2008. A hierarchical model for studying risk factors for childhood diarrhoea: a case control study in a middle income country. International Journal of Epidemiology; 37(4):805-15. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyn093
  1. Teixeira MG, Barreto ML, Costa MCN, Ferreira LDA, Morato V, Vasconcelos P, CAIRNCROSS S 2007. Exposure to the risk of dengue virus infection in an urban setting: ecological versus individual heterogeneity, Dengue Bulletin 31: 36-46.

150. Genser B, Strina A, dos Santos LA, Teles CA, Prado MS, CAIRNCROSS S, Barreto ML. 2008. Impact of a city-wide sanitation intervention in a large urban centre on social, environmental and behavioural determinants of childhood diarrhoea: analysis of two cohort studies. International Journal of Epidemiology 37: 831-840. doi: 10.1093/ ije/syn101.

  1. Fung IC-H, CAIRNCROSS S. 2009. Ascariasis and handwashing. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 103, pp. 215-222 DOI: 10.1016/ j.trstmh.2008.08.003
  1. Schmidt W-P, CAIRNCROSS S. 2009 Household water treatment in poor populations – is there enough evidence for scaling up now? Environmental Science & Technology 43(4):986-92.
  1. Schmidt W-P, CAIRNCROSS S, Barreto M, Clasen T, Genser B 2009 Recent diarrhoeal illness and risk of lower respiratory infections in children under the age of 5 years. International Journal of Epidemiology, doi:10.1093/ije/dyp159
  1. Jenkins MW, CAIRNCROSS S 2009. Modelling latrine diffusion in Benin: towards a community typology of demand for improved sanitation in developing countries. Journal of Water & Health 8(1):166-83.
  1. Tayeh A, CAIRNCROSS S. (2009) Certification of disease eradication: lessons from dracunculiasis. Trop Med Int Health. 14(12):1431-6.
  1. Ensink J, Scott C, Brooker S, CAIRNCROSS S. 2010. Sewage disposal in the Musi-River, India: water quality remediation through irrigation infrastructure. Irrigation and Drainage Systems 24:65–77. DOI 10.1007/s10795-009-9088-4
  1. Schmidt W-P, Boisson S, Genser B, Barreto M, Baisley K, Filteau S, CAIRNCROSS S 2010 Weight for age Z-score as a proxy marker for diarrhoea in epidemiological studies. J Epidemiol Community Health; 64(12):1074-9. Epub 2009 Dec 1.
  1. CAIRNCROSS S, Hunt C, Boisson S, Bostoen K, Curtis V, Fung ICH, Schmidt W-P. 2010. Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea. Int J Epidemiol. 39 Suppl 1:i193-205.
  1. Schmidt WP, Genser B, Barreto ML, Clasen T, Luby SP, CAIRNCROSS S, Chalabi Z 2010. Sampling strategies to measure the prevalence of common recurrent infections in longitudinal studies. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 7:5
  1. Silva SR, Heller L, de Campos Valadares J, CAIRNCROSS S 2010. Relationship (or its lack) between population and a water and sanitation service: a study of users’ perception in Vitória (ES) Brazil. Journal of Water and Health 8(4): 764-778
  1. Barreto ML; Genser B, Strina A; Teixeira MG, Assis AMO, Rego RF, Teles CA;. Prado MS; Matos SMA;. Alcântara-Neves NM; CAIRNCROSS S 2010, Impact of a City-Wide Sanitation Programme in Northeast Brazil on Intestinal Parasites Infection in Young Children. Environmental Health Perspectives. 118(11): 1637-42. PMID: 2070554.
  1. Clasen TF, Bostoen K, Schmidt W-P, Boisson S, Fung IC-H, Jenkins MW, Scott B, Sugden S, CAIRNCROSS S. Interventions to improve disposal of human excreta for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD007180. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007180.pub2
  1. Bartram J, CAIRNCROSS S (2010) Hygiene, Sanitation and Water: Forgotten Foundations of Health. PLoS Med 7(11): e1000367. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000367
  1. CAIRNCROSS S, Bartram J, Cumming O, Brocklehurst C (2010) Hygiene, sanitation, and water: What needs to be done? PLoS Med 7: e365. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed. 1000365
  1. Teixeira MG, Barreto ML, Costa M, Ferreira LDA, Morato V, Vasconcelos PF, CAIRNCROSS S (2011) Heterogeneity of risk factors of dengue virus infection in an urban setting. J Epidemiol & Community Health 65:A371-2.
  1. Subaiya S, CAIRNCROSS S. 2011. Letter. Response to Wang and Hunter: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Association between Self-Reported Diarrheal Disease and Distance from Home to Water Source. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 84(3):504
  1. Santos AC, Roberts JA, Barreto ML, CAIRNCROSS S 2011. Demand for sanitation in Salvador/Brazil: a hybrid choice approach. Social Science & Medicine. 72(8):1325-32. Epub 2011 Mar 3.
  1. Touré O, Coulibaly S, Arby A, Maiga F, CAIRNCROSS S. 2011. Improving Microbiological Food Safety in Peri‑Urban Mali; an Experimental Study. Food Control 22: 1565-72
  1. Schmidt WP, Arnold BF, Boisson S, Genser B, Luby SP, Barreto ML, Clasen T, CAIRNCROSS S. (2011) Epidemiological methods in diarrhoea studies – an update. Int J Epidemiol 40 (6): 1678-92.
  1. Strina A, Rodrigues LC, CAIRNCROSS S, Ferrer SR, Fialho AM, Leite JPG, Ribeiro-Jr HC, Barreto ML 2012. Factors Associated with Diarrhoea with Rotavirus in Children Living in a Socially Diverse Urban Centre in Brazil. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 106(7):445-51. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2012.02.001.
  1. Touré O, Coulibaly S, Arby A, Maiga F, CAIRNCROSS S. (2012) Piloting an intervention to Improve Microbiological Food Safety in Peri-Urban Mali. Int J Hyg & Environ Health (E-pub ahead of print)
  1. CAIRNCROSS S, Tayeh A, Korkor AS. (2012) Why is dracunculiasis eradication taking so long? Trends in Parasitology. 28(6):225-30.
  1. Dil Y, Strachan D, CAIRNCROSS S Korkor AS, Hill Z. (2012) Motivations and challenges of community-based surveillance volunteers in the Northern Region of Ghana.   Journal of Community Health.
  1. Lanza Queiroz AC, CAIRNCROSS S, Cardoso LSM, Heller L, Silva SCF 2012. Vigiagua: lacunas entre a formulação do programa e sua implantação na instância municipal. Um estudo qualitativo. Saúde e Sociedade (in press)
  1. CAIRNCROSS S (2012). Home care with water for human consumption and its implications in health: Perceptions of residents in Vitória (ES), Brazil | O cuidado domiciliar com a água de consumo humano e suas implicações na saúde: Percepções de moradores em Vitória (ES)